Germ Tube Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation and Limitations 4.58/5 (212)

Germ Tube Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation and Limitations

Germ Tube Test is a screening test which is used to differentiate Candida albicans from other yeast. Germ tube (GT) formation was first reported by Reynolds and Braude in 1956. When Candida is grown in human or sheep serum at 37°C for 3 hours, they forms a germ tubes, which can be detected with a wet KOH films as filamentous outgrowth extending from yeast cells. It is positive for Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis. Approximately 95 – 97% of Candida albicans isolated develop germ tubes when incubated in a proteinaceous media.

Germ Tube Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation and Limitations

Principle of Germ Tube Test

Formation of germ tube is associated with increased synthesis of protein and ribonucleic acid. Germ Tube solutions contains tryptic soy broth and fetal bovine serum, essential nutrients for protein synthesis. It is lyophilized for stability. Germ tube is one of the virulence factors of Candida albicans. This is a rapid test for the presumptive identification of C. albicans.

Procedure of Germ Tube Test
  1. Put 0.5 ml of sheep or human serum into a small tube.
    Note: Fetal bovine serum can also be used instead of human serum.
  2. Using a Pasteur pipette, touch a colony of yeast and gently emulsify it in the serum.
    Note: Too large of an inoculum will inhibit germ tube formation.
  3. Incubated the tube at 37°C for 2 to 4 hours.
  4. Transfer a drop of the serum to a slide for examination.
  5. Coverslip and examine microscopically under low and high power objectives.
Results and Interpretation of Germ Tube Test

Results and Interpretation of Germ Tube Test

Positive Test: A short hyphal (filamentous) extension arising laterally from a yeast cell, with no constriction at the point of origin. Germ tube is half the width and 3 to 4 times the length of the yeast cell and there is no presence of nucleus. Examples: Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis

Negative Test: No hyphal (filamentous) extension arising from a yeast cell or a short hyphal extension constricted at the point of origin. Examples: C. tropicalisC. glabrata and other yeasts.

Quality Control in Germ Tube Test

Positive Control: C. albicans (ATCC 10231)

Negative Control: C. tropicalis (ATCC 13803), C. glabrata (ATCC 2001)

Limitations of Germ Tube Test
  1. C. tropicalis may form early pseudohyphae which may be falsely interpreted as germ tubes.
  2. The yeast formerly named Candida stellatoidea also produces germ tubes; however, it has been combined with C. albicans and no longer exists as separate species.
  3. This test is only part of the overall scheme for identification of yeasts. Further testing is required for definite identification.
Germ Tube Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation and Limitations

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Germ Tube Test- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation and Limitations

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The Author

Sagar Aryal

I am Sagar Aryal, a passionate Microbiologist and the Scientific Blogger. I did my Master's Degree in Medical Microbiology and currently working as a Lecturer at Department of Microbiology, St. Xavier's College, Kathmandu, Nepal. I am particularly interested in research related to Medical Microbiology and Virology. Find me on Facebook, Twitter or Linkedin !!!


Add a Comment
  1. Amin Maikudi Muhammad Indabawa

    Thank you so much, but I have 1 question. These two organism only have positive germ tube test?

  2. Dr.Balsam Al-muhana

    Thanks so much

  3. Thanks, the post has been very helpful.

  4. What happens when you exceed on incubation time on germ tube, let’s say you leave it for 6 hours in a water bath

  5. why is this test not useful?

  6. Need more grounded information about term “germ”. As known “germ” is not scietific based term. Terminology for “germ” is uncler by now. Yeasts are not equalent to germs, as well as yeast test is not the same as germ test. So “differential tube test” or another test name could be more perfect/suitable for use. Replay would be very helpfull, thanks.

    1. Germ in this sense means to germinate. It has nothing to do with bacteria.

  7. Just awesome….I think you should have a app of microbiology.. If it’s already there please inform…

    Thank you

  8. Thanks much, good help for class notes.

  9. very nice ! Thanks.

  10. thks so much this information has helped me finish my assignment God bless you abundantly

  11. thanks I m greatful

  12. wonderful work
    I love microbiology

  13. you hav helped me alot to complete my report
    big ups!!

  14. excellant answer

  15. This note is very helpful, thanks

  16. how do we do culture on skin scrapping?

  17. just helped me solved an assignment. thank you.

  18. Good one.

    Also Growth at 45C on Chromagar Plate and PCR can be used to differentiate Candida albicans from and Candida dubliniensis.

  19. Other differential test for candida species like suger fermentation test ?need informations about it.thank you very much

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