Category: Immunology

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis 4.58/5 (12)

Rapid-Plasma-Reagin-(RPR)-Test-for-the-diagnosis-of-Syphilis

Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) Test for the diagnosis of Syphilis Introduction Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) is macroscopic, non treponemal, flocculation card test used to screen for syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum. RPR is simple test can be done within few minutes. This test is less sensitive than treponemal test in early syphilis infection. Two types […]

Difference between Innate and Adaptive Immunity 4.53/5 (180)

Difference between Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Difference between Innate and Adaptive Immunity S.N. Characteristics Innate Immunity Adaptive immunity 1. Presence Innate immunity is something already present in the body. Adaptive immunity is created in response to exposure to a foreign substance. 2. Specificity Non-Specific Specific 3. Response Fights any foreign invader Fight only specific infection 4. Response Rapid Slow (1-2 weeks) […]

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation 4.45/5 (58)

Result Interpretation of CRP Test

C-Reactive Protein (CRP) Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation C-Reactive Protein (CRP), also known as Pentraxin 1, is a non-glycosylated protein in the Pentraxin family that also includes Pentraxin 2/SAP and Pentraxin 3/TSG-14. CRP is an acute phase reactant, a protein made by the liver and released into the blood within a few hours after […]

Differences Between Antigen and Antibody 4.17/5 (173)

Differences Between Antigen and Antibody

Differences Between Antigen and Antibody Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins, Y-shaped molecules are proteins manufactured by the body that help fight against foreign substances called antigens. Antigens are any substance that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. Antigens can be bacteria, viruses, or fungi that cause infection and disease. Following are some of the differences between […]

Differences Between B-Cells and T-Cells 4.61/5 (310)

Differences between B-Cells and T-Cells

Differences Between B-Cells and T-Cells Although mature lymphocytes all look pretty much alike, they are extraordinarily diverse in their functions. The most abundant lymphocytes are: B lymphocytes (often simply called B cells) and T lymphocytes (likewise called T cells). Some of the differences between B Cells and T Cells are as follows: S.N. Properties B-Cells T-Cells […]

Coombs Test- Principle, Types, Procedure and Result Interpretation 4.23/5 (208)

Direct Coombs Test

Coombs Test- Principle, Types, Procedure and Result Interpretation Coombs test is also known as antiglobulin test. The Coombs test tests for antibodies that may stick to the red blood cells and cause red blood cells to die too early. It was discovered by Coombs, Mourant and Race in 1945. Coombs reagent is antihuman globulin. It is made […]

Widal Test- Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitation 4.21/5 (866)

Interpretation of Widal Test- Tube Method

Widal Test- Introduction, Principle, Procedure, Interpretation and Limitation Introduction of Widal Test Widal Test is an agglutination test which detects the presence of serum agglutinins (H and O) in patients serum with typhoid and paratyphoid fever. When facilities for culturing are not available, the Widal test is the reliable and can be of value in […]

Antigen- Properties, Types and Determinants of Antigenicity 4.52/5 (353)

Incomplete Antigen or Hapten

Antigen- Properties, Types and Determinants of Antigenicity Antigen is a substances usually protein in nature and sometimes polysaccharide, that generates a specific immune response and induces the formation of a specific antibody or specially sensitized T cells or both. Although all antigens are recognized by specific lymphocytes or by antibodies, only some antigens are capable […]

Antibody- Structure, Classes and Functions 4.3/5 (142)

Structure of Antibody

Antibody- Structure, Classes and Functions Antibody (Ab) also know as Immunoglobulin (Ig) is the large Y shaped protein produced by the body’s immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens like bacteria and viruses. The production of antibodies is a major function of the immune system and is carried out by a type of white blood cell […]

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