Scrub Typhus- Etiology, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment 3/5 (2)

Scrub Typhus- Etiology, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

Scrub Typhus- Etiology, Epidemiology, Symptoms, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment Scrub Typhus is an acute febrile illness which is caused by an obligate intracellular pathogen called Orientia tsutsugamushi, which is transmitted by the bite of infected larval stage trombiculid mite, Leptotrombidium spp. (Chiggers). The name scrub typhus was applied after discovery of increased frequency of the […]

Mannitol Salt Agar for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus 5/5 (3)

Mannitol Salt Agar for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus

Mannitol Salt Agar for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Mannitol Salt Agar (MSA) is used as a selective and differential medium for the isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and non-clinical specimens. It encourages the growth of a group of certain bacteria while inhibiting the growth of others. It is a selective medium […]

Bird Seed Agar for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans 5/5 (4)

Bird Seed Agar for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans

Bird Seed Agar for the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans Bird Seed Agar is a solid medium used for selective and differential isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from clinical specimens. Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast that produces the enzyme phenoloxidase, an enzyme necessary in melanin synthesis. The brown pigmented colonies of Cryptococcus neoformans were observed by Staib […]

PYR Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation 5/5 (2)

Result Interpretation of PYR Test

PYR Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation PYR (Pyrrolidonyl Aminopeptidase) Test is used for the detection of pyrolidonyl arylamidase (also called pyrrolidonyl aminopeptidase) activity in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep), Enterococcus spp., some coagulase-negative staphylococci, and some Enterobacteriaceae. It is also known as PYR (L-pyrrolidonyl-β-naphthylamide) which serve as a substrate for the detection of […]

Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation 4.88/5 (8)

Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Bile Solubility Test- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation Bile Solubility Test is the test which differentiate Streptococcus pneumoniae (positive- soluble) from alpha-hemolytic streptococci (negative- insoluble). Streptococcus pneumoniae is bile soluble whereas all other alpha-hemolytic streptococci are bile resistant. Principle of Bile Solubility Test S. pneumoniae has an autolytic enzyme which can be demonstrated by […]

Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar- Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Result Interpretation 4.36/5 (11)

Result Interpretation on Salmonella Shigella Agar

Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar- Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Result Interpretation Salmonella Shigella (SS) Agar is moderately selective and differential medium for the isolation, cultivation and differentiation of Salmonella spp. and some strains of Shigella spp. SS Agar is a modification of the Desoxycholate Citrate Agar. It is recommended for testing clinical specimens and food […]

Starch Casein Agar (SCA) – Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Result Interpretation 4.75/5 (8)

Actinomycetes on Starch Casein Agar (SCA)

Starch Casein Agar (SCA) – Composition, Principle, Uses, Preparation and Result Interpretation Starch Casein Agar (SCA) is used for the detection of saccharolytic marine bacteria and mostly actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are a fungi-like bacteria forming long filaments that stretch through the soil. They are large group of gram positive filamentous and/ or branching bacilli. Actinomycetes have […]

CAMP Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation 5/5 (9)

CAMP Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation

CAMP Test- Principle, Uses, Procedure and Result Interpretation CAMP test is used to distinguish the species Streptococcus agalactiae from other species of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. S. agalactiae, a member of the Lancefield Group B streptococci, is one of the causative agents of mastitis in cows. CAMP is an acronym for the authors of this test (Christie, […]

Difference between Anthrax Bacilli and Anthracoid Bacilli 4.92/5 (24)

Difference between Anthrax Bacilli and Anthracoid Bacilli

Difference between Anthrax Bacilli and Anthracoid Bacilli S.N. Characteristics Anthrax Bacilli Anthracoid Bacilli 1. Motility Non-Motile Generally Motile 2. Capsule Capsulated Non-Capsulated 3. Shape Grow in long chains Grow in short chains 4. Medusa Head Colony Present Not Present 5. Growth in Penicillin Agar (10 units/ml) No Growth Grow Usually 6. Hemolysis Hemolysis absent or […]

Difference Between Mold and Yeast 4.53/5 (129)

Difference Between Mold and Yeast

Difference Between Mold and Yeast S.N. Characteristics Mold Yeast 1 Habitat Typically found in damp, dark or steam-filled areas. Very common. Can be found on fruit and berries, in the stomach of mammals and on skin, among other places. 2 Cell Multicellular (multiple celled) Unicellular (one cell) 3 Shape Filamentous fungi, Threadlike Round or oval […]

Community Acquired MRSA vs Hospital Acquired MRSA 4.5/5 (30)

Community Acquired MRSA vs Hospital Acquired MRSA

Community Acquired MRSA vs Hospital Acquired MRSA S.N. Characteristics Community Acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) Hospital Acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) 1. Clinical Infection Skin, Soft tissue, necrotizing pneumonia Pneumonia, urinary, bloodstream, surgical site (multiple site) 2. At risk populations Clusters and outbreaks in closed populations (prisoners, athletes, military, selected ethnic populations, intravenous drug users, soldiers) Outbreaks are associated […]

Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus 4.7/5 (57)

Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus

Virulence Factors of Staphylococcus A.   Cell Wall Associated Virulence Factors Functions Peptidoglycan – Pyrogenicity – Complement Activation – Inhibition of leukocyte migration Techoic Acid – Adherence to mucosal surfaces Capsule – Diffusion Barrier – Prevents Phagocytosis – Capsular serotypes 5 and 8 are most frequently associated with bacteremia and infections B.   Cell Surface Associated Virulence […]

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